What Are The Different Theories Of Intelligence in Psychology?
Feb 18, · there are a number of different theories about what intelligence is and how to define it but before I get into that I want to talk about a debate that pervades all of these different theories and that's the question of whether or not there's one general intelligence or whether intelligence has multiple aspects or whether there are multiple intelligences Author: Brooke Miller. Fluid intelligence is the ability to develop techniques for solving problems that are new and unusual, from the perspective of the problem solver. Crystallized intelligence is the ability to bring previously acquired, often culturally defined, problem-solving methods to bear on the current problem. Note that this implies both that the problem solver knows the methods and recognizes that they are relevant in the current .
Actively scan device characteristics for identification. Use precise geolocation data. Select personalised content. Create a personalised content profile. Measure ad performance. Select basic ads. Create a personalised ads profile.
Select personalised ads. Apply market research to generate audience insights. Measure content performance. Develop and improve products. List of Partners vendors. While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects in psychologythere is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes intelligence. Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability. Others believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills, and talents.
Intelligence has been a intelljgence topic throughout psychology's history. Despite the substantial interest in the subject, thhe is still considerable disagreement about what components makeup intelligence. In addition to questions of exactly how to define intelligence, the debate continues today about whether accurate measurements are even possible.
At various points throughout recent history, researchers have proposed some different definitions of intelligence. While these definitions can vary considerably from one theorist to the next, current conceptualizations tend to suggest that intelligence is the ability to:.
Intflligence involves some different mental abilities including logic, age, problem-solvingand planning. While the subject of intelligence is theeories of the largest and most heavily researched, it divferent also one of the topics that generate the greatest controversy. While psychologists often disagree about the definition and causes of intelligence, research on intelligence plays a significant role in many areas. These areas include decisions regarding how much funding should be given to educational programs, the use of testing to screen job applicants, and the use of testing to identify children who need additional academic help.
The term tne quotient," or IQ, was first coined in the early 20th century by a German psychologist named William Stern. Psychologist Alfred Binet developed the very first intelligence tests to help the French government identify schoolchildren who needed extra academic assistance. Binet was the first to introduce the concept of mental age or a set of abilities that children of a certain age possess. Since that time, intelligence testing has emerged what are the different theories of intelligence a widely used tool that has led to developing many other tests of skill and aptitude.
However, gheories continues to spur debate and controversy over the use of such testing, cultural biases that may be involved, influences on intelligence, and even the very way we define intelligence. Different researchers have proposed a variety of theories to explain the nature of intelligence. Here are some of the major theories of intelligence that have emerged during the last years. British psychologist Charles Spearman — described a concept he referred to as general intelligence or the g factor.
After using a technique known as factor analysis to examine how to clear your ears after a flight mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar.
People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on others. He concluded that intelligence is a general cognitive ability that can be measured and numerically expressed. Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone — offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone's theory focused on seven different what does ekg test show mental abilities.
One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner 's theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner proposed that the traditional idea of intelligence, based on IQ testing, did not fully and accurately depict a person's abilities. Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection, and shaping of real-world environments relevant to one's life.
While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he suggested that some of Gardner's types of intelligence are better viewed as individual talents. In order to gain a deeper understanding of intelligence and the tests developed to measure this conceptit's important to understand the history of intelligence testing, the research that has been conducted, and the findings that tje emerged.
Major questions about intelligence and IQ testing still include:. To explore these questions, psychologists have conducted a considerable amount of research on the nature, influences, and effects of intelligence. While there has been considerable debate over the exact nature of intelligence, no definitive conceptualization has emerged.
Today, psychologists often account for the many theoretical viewpoints when discussing intelligence and acknowledge that this debate is ongoing. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find how long do money orders take to process what are the different theories of intelligence in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Ihtelligence S, Lachmann T. Front Psychol. Or slow?
On the origins of intelligence as a psychological object. Spearman C. The American Journal of Psychology. Thurstone LL. Primary Mental Abilities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Gardner H.
Basic Books; Sternberg RJ. CUP Archive; Richardson K, Norgate SH. What are four characteristics of a state Dev Sci. Your Privacy Rights. To change or withdraw your consent choices for VerywellMind. At any time, you can update your settings through the "EU Privacy" link at the bottom of any page. These choices will be signaled globally to our partners and will not affect browsing data.
We and our partners process data to: Actively scan device characteristics for identification. I Accept Show Purposes. Table of Contents View All. Table of Contents. What Is Intelligence? Brief History. Major Questions. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns? Article Sources. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
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We can become more intelligent through study and practice, through access to appropriate tools, and through learning to make effective use of these tools Perkins, Intelligence is a complex topic. An overview of some of this complexity is provided in Hunt Howard Gardner, David Perkins, and Robert Sternberg have all been quite successful in helping spread knowledge about the meaning of "intelligence" and applications of this knowledge to education.
The following material reflects the work of these three researchers and is quoted from Chapter 4 of the book:. The study and measurement of intelligence has been an important research topic for nearly years IQ is a complex concept, and researchers in this field argue with each other about the various theories that have been developed.
There is no clear agreement as to what constitutes IQ or how to measure it. There is an extensive and continually growing collection of research papers on the topic. Howard Gardner , , Robert Sternberg , , and David Perkins have written widely sold books that summarize the literature and present their own specific points of view. The following definition is a composite from various authors. Intelligence is a combination of the ability to:. This definition of intelligence is a very optimistic one.
It says that each of us can become more intelligent. PBL can be used as a vehicle in which students can use and improve their intelligence. More detail on the work of Gardner, Sternberg, and Perkins is given in the next three subsections.
Some researchers in the field of intelligence have long argued that people have a variety of different intelligences. A person may be good at learning languages and terrible at learning music--or vice versa.
A single number a score on an IQ test cannot adequately represent the complex and diverse capabilities of a human being. Howard Gardner has proposed a theory of multiple intelligences. He originally identified seven components of intelligence Gardner, He argues that these intelligences are relatively distinct from each other and that each person has some level of each of these seven intelligences. More recently, he has added an eighth intelligence to his list Educational Leadership, Many PBL-using teachers have studied the work of Howard Gardner and use some of his ideas in their teaching.
For example, in creating a team of students to do a particular project, a teacher may select a team whose collective "highest" talents encompass most of the eight areas of intelligence identified by Gardner. The teacher may encourage a team to divide up specific tasks in line with specific high levels of talents found on a team.
Alternatively, a teacher may encourage or require that team members not be allowed to work in their areas of highest ability in order to encourage their development of knowledge and skills in other areas. The following table lists the eight intelligences identified by Howard Gardner. It provides some examples of the types of professionals who exhibit a high level of an intelligence.
The eight intelligences are listed in alphabetical order. Sales people, teachers, clinicians, politicians, religious leaders. The ability to sense other's feelings and be in tune with others. People who have good insight into themselves and make effective use of their other intelligences. The ability to know your own body and mind. The ability to communicate well, perhaps both orally and in writing, perhaps in several languages. The ability to learn higher mathematics.
The ability to handle complex logical arguments. The ability to understand different species, recognize patterns in nature, classify natural objects. Sailors navigating without modern navigational aids, surgeons, sculptors, painters.
The ability to know where you are relative to fixed locations. The ability to accomplish tasks requiring three-dimensional visualization and placement of your hands or other parts of your body.
You might want to do some introspection. For each of the eight intelligences in the Howard Gardner list, think about your own level of talents and performance. For each intelligence, decide if you have an area of expertise that makes substantial use of the intelligence. For example, perhaps you are good at music. If so, is music the basis of your vocation?
Students can also do this type of introspection, and it can become a routine component of PBL lessons. Students can come to understand that they are more naturally gifted in some areas than in others, but that they have some talent in all of the eight areas identified by Howard Gardner.
Curriculum and instruction can be developed to help all students make progress in enhancing their talents in each of these eight areas of intelligence.
Many teachers have provided testimonial evidence that PBL encourages participation on the part of their students who do not have a high level of "school smarts. These observations are consistent with and supportive of the research of Robert Sternberg. As noted earlier in this chapter, different researchers have identified different components of intelligence. Sternberg , focuses on just three main components:.
Sternberg provides examples of people who are quite talented in one of these areas but not so talented in the other two. In that sense, his approach to the field of intelligence is somewhat like Howard Gardner's. However, you can see that Sternberg does not focus on specific components of intelligence that are aligned with various academic disciplines. He is far more concerned with helping people develop components of intelligence that will help them to perform well in whatever they chose to do.
Sternberg strongly believes that intelligence can be increased by study and practice. Quite a bit of his research focuses on such endeavors. Some of Sternberg's work focuses specifically on "street smarts" versus "school smarts. This observation is consistent with the work of Lev Vygotsky Fosnot, who argues that the type of learning that goes on outside of school is distinctly different than the type of learning that goes on in school.
While some students are talented in both informal and formal education, others are much more successful in one rather than the other. A teacher who is skillful in developing PBL can help students to design projects that are consistent with their learning abilities and interests.
In his book, Smart Schools, David Perkins analyzes a number of different educational theories and approaches to education. His analysis is strongly supportive of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Perkins' book contains extensive research-based evidence that education can be considerably improved by more explicit and appropriate teaching for transfer, focusing on higher-order cognitive skills, and the use of project-based learning.
Perkins examines a large number of research studies both on the measurement of IQ and of programs of study designed to increase IQ. He presents detailed arguments that IQ has three major components or dimensions. There is substantial evidence to support the belief that a child's neural intelligence can be adversely affected by the mother's use of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine during pregnancy.
Lead such as from lead-based paint can do severe neural damage to a person. Vitamins, or the lack thereof, can affect neural intelligence. Moreover, there is general agreement that neural intelligence has a "use it or lose it" characteristic. It is clear that neural intelligence can be maintained and, indeed, increased, by use.
Experiential intelligence is based on years and years of accumulating knowledge and experience in both informal and formal learning environments. Such knowledge and experience can lead to a high level of expertise in one or more fields. People who live in "rich" learning environments have a significant intelligence advantage over people who grow up in less stimulating environments.
Experiential intelligence can be increased by such environments. Reflexive intelligence can be thought of as a control system that helps to make effective use of neural intelligence and experiential intelligence. A person can learn strategies that help to make more effective use of neural intelligence and experiential intelligence. The habits of mind included under reflexive intelligence can be learned and improved. Metacognition and other approaches to reflecting about one's cognitive processes can help.
End of materials quoted from: Moursund, D. Project-based Learning Using Information Technology. The author of eighteen books and several hundred articles, Gardner is best known in educational circles for his theory of multiple intelligences, a critique of the notion that there exists but a single human intelligence that can be assessed by standard psychometric instruments.
During the past fifteen years, he and colleagues at Project Zero have been working on the design of performance-based assessments, education for understanding, and the use of multiple intelligences to achieve more personalized curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Most recently, Gardner and his colleagues have launched the Good Work Project. Researchers are examining how individuals who wish to carry out good work succeed in doing so during a time when conditions are changing very quickly, market forces are very powerful, and our sense of time and space is being radically altered by technologies, such as the web.
Gardner is the author of eighteen books which have been translated into twenty languages. He has conducted long-term programs of research and development in the areas of teaching and learning for understanding, creativity, problem-solving and reasoning in the arts, sciences, and everyday life. He has also studied the role of educational technologies in teaching and learning, and has designed learning structures and strategies in organizations to facilitate personal and organizational understanding and intelligence.
These inquiries reflect a conception of mind that emphasizes the interlocking relationships among thinking, learning, and understanding. The three depend deeply on one another. Meaningful learning aims at understanding and depends on thinking with and about what one is learning. Effective thinking in the subject matters and in general involves understanding the resources of the mind and learning to deploy them sensitively and systematically.
The following quote from Sternberg's resume provides a good overview of his approach to the study of intelligence. The article Sternberg, Summer is particularly interesting to the field of IT and education, as it focuses on how technology including calculators and computers,m but also other forms of technology such as radio and TV has been increasing intelligence.
Carvin, Andy. Howard Gardner [Online]. Gardner, Howard [Online]. Harvard Project Zero [Online].