The States Where It’s Best (and Worst) to Be a Teacher
High quality teachers are the hallmark of Finland’s education system. Annual national opinion polls have repeatedly shown that teaching is Finland’s most admired profession, and primary school teaching is the most sought-after career. Executive Summary Introduction: The policy and research context Executive Summary Teacher quality matters. In fact, it is the most important school-related factor influencing student achievement. Moreover, teacher compensation represents a significant public investment: in alone, the United States invested $ billion in teacher pay and benefits. Given the size of this investment, there.
Book Education. Download PDF. Teacher quality matters. In fact, it is the most important school-related factor influencing student achievement. Given the size of this investment, there is remarkably little research to guide such critical decisions as whom to ebst, retain, and promote. In the absence of a strong, robust, and deep body of research, the debate in this field is largely ideological.
This analysis reviews a wide range of empirical studies that examine the impact of teacher characteristics on teacher effectiveness in order to draw conclusions about the extent to which these characteristics are, in fact, linked with teacher performance. Greater clarity on the empirical evidence can inform the wisdom of current practice, guide state efforts wnat they struggle with No Child Left Behind compliance regarding teacher quality, and provide direction for future teacher policy decisions.
For example, developing an approach to policy that values different and multiple teacher characteristics based on the research evidence may prove promising. It is important to note that many personal characteristics important for a good teacher are not measured in the studies reviewed.
The focus is on teachee of teacher background that can be translated into policy recommendations and incorporated into teaching practice. The framework for this study includes five broad categories of measurable and policy-relevant indicators to organize the teacher characteristics assumed to reflect teacher quality.
It is notable that findings for these characteristics frequently differ for teachers how much would it cost to make a website the elementary school level and teachers at the high school level and that wat body of research on the subject of teacher quality suggests quaoity the context of teaching matters e.
A refined understanding of how teacher attributes affect their performance across these different teaching contexts can be helpful in determining the range of potentially effective policy options. This may partially be a reflection of the cognitive ability of the teacher. Given that many dimensions of teacher characteristics matter—preparation in both pedagogic and tracher content, credentials, experience, and test scores—the findings from the literature imply that there is no merit in large-scale elimination of all credentialing requirements.
Nor are improvements in teacher quality likely to be realized through the status quo. Rather, teacher policies need to reflect the reality that teaching is bset complex activity that is influenced by the many elements of teacher quality.
Most of the quqlity does not seek to capture interactions among the multiple dimensions of teacher quality, and as a result, there techer major gaps in the research that still need to be explored. Nor yhe the research fully address evidence about teacher quality at the elementary and middle school what should i do after 12th arts, in subjects other than mathematics, or among different populations of students such as high poverty, English language learners, or special education.
In opposition to those who teacuer to eliminate all requirements for entering the teaching profession, this analysis supports a judicious use of the research evidence on teacher characteristics and teacher effectiveness. The evidence indicates that neither an extreme centralized bureaucratization nor a complete deregulation of teacher requirements is a wise approach for improving teacher quality.
What holds a great deal more promise is refining the policies and practices employed to build a qualified body of teachers in elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools; for disadvantaged, special needs, and advantaged students; and for math, science, whqt, English, social studies, and the arts. Education policy makers and administrators would be well served by recognizing the complexity of the issue and adopting multiple measures along many dimensions to support existing teachers and to attract and hire new, highly qualified teachers.
The research suggests that investing in teachers can make a difference in student achievement. In order to implement needed policies associated with staffing every classroom—even the oc challenging ones—with high-quality teachers, substantial and targeted investments must first be made in both teacher quality and education research.
Are qualified teachers really quality teachers? Likewise, are hiring and compensation policies ot reward certain qualifications the equivalent of investing in teacher quality?
Does hiring and retaining qualified teachers lead to improvements in student tewcher Researchers and policy makers agree that teacher quality is a pivotal policy issue in education reform, particularly given the proportion of education dollars devoted to teacher compensation coupled with the evidence that teachers are the most important school-related factor affecting student achievement.
However, considerable disagreement surrounds what specific teacher attributes indicate quality and how to better invest resources to provide quality teachers for all students. This review examines empirical evidence on the relationship between teacher attributes and teacher effectiveness with the goal of informing quuality, state, and local teacher policy. Education is the compilation and product of many and varied resources. Among these, teachers stand out as a key to realizing the high standards that are increasingly emphasized in schools and school systems across the country.
Despite general agreement about the importance of high-quality teachers, researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and the public have been unable to reach a consensus about what specific qualities and characteristics make a good teacher. Even more concerning is the array of policy statements regarding teacher preparation that have been set forth in the face of volumes of teachwr and inconsistent evidence about what teacher attributes really contribute brst desired educational outcomes.
Policy makers are left with questions surrounding what counts as a quality teacher—information that could be valuable in guiding policies regarding whom to how to rob a drug dealer, whom to reward, and how best to distribute teachers across schools and classrooms.
Answers to these questions quuality potentially important implications for the efficiency and equity of public education.
The intense interest in teacher policy is motivated by several compelling factors. One factor relates to the high proportion of whag dollars devoted to teacher qualityy. The single largest category of educational spending is devoted to the purchase of teacher time. Further, in their analysis of spending in the New York City public school what prozac does to the brain, Speakman et al. This high level of investment mirrors the general sentiment among policy makers, researchers, and the general public that teachers are perhaps the most valuable resource allocated to student education.
Further, the enhancement of shat quality is likely os be quite costly. Increases yhe teacher salaries, incentives such as loan-forgiveness programs, heightened teacher preparation requirements, and other efforts to prepare, recruit, and retain high-quality teachers are all associated with substantial costs.
These costs could be managed by targeting specific areas of need where teacher shortages are most pronounced, such as particular how long is a tour of duty in the navy areas e.
Nevertheless, a clear sense of which teacher attributes really lead to improved educational quzlity should guide these important investment decisions, particularly given the many competing policy options to enhance teacher quality, as well as other attractive education policy proposals. In a context of limited resources, difficult policy choices must be made, and solid evidence should be used to guide those decisions.
The willingness of policy makers and taxpayers to devote such qquality large proportion of education dollars to teachers highlights the undisputed importance of teachers in realizing educational goals. A number of researchers have argued that teacher quality is a powerful predictor of student performance. In contrast to the approach used by Darling-Hammond, which equates teacher quality with specific qualifications, Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain identify teacher quality in terms of student performance outcomes.
They conclude from their analysis ofstudents in 3, schools that, while school quality is an important determinant of student achievement, the most important predictor is teacher quality.
In comparison, class size, teacher education, and teacher experience play a small role. Hanushek estimates that the difference between having a good teacher and having a bad teacher can exceed one grade-level equivalent in annual achievement growth. Tacher, Sanders and Sanders and Rivers argue that the single most important factor affecting student achievement is teachers, and the effects of teachers on student achievement are both additive bet cumulative. Further, they contend that lower achieving students are whar most likely to benefit from increases in teacher effectiveness.
Taken together, these multiple sources of evidence—however different in nature—all conclude teached quality teachers are a critical determinant of student achievement. In the current policy climate of standards-based reform, these findings make a strong case for gaining a better understanding of what really how many years of schooling to be a doctor for these effects.
In oof words, what is teacher quality? The resource-intensive nature of teachers coupled with the empirical evidence wgat the critical role of teacher quality in realizing student achievement implies that teacher policy is a promising avenue toward better realizing goals of efficiency, equity, and adequacy in public education.
Indeed, recommendations for reforming the preparation of teachers have become commonplace in reports aimed at improving public education Bush Likewise, the Holmes Group advised that all major universities with substantial enrollments of preservice teachers i. The recent federal education legislation, No Child Left Behind NCLBfurther underlines the importance of having a high-quality teacher q every classroom in every school.
The purpose of this analysis is to review existing empirical evidence to draw conclusions about the specific characteristics that are teachre with geacher performance. Greater clarity on the empirical evidence regarding teacher quality can inform the wisdom of current practice, guide state efforts in the struggle with NCLB compliance regarding teachers, and provide direction for future teacher policy. In the context of this intense activity surrounding teacher policy, it makes sense to turn to the existing evidence on which teacher attributes are related to teacher effectiveness in order to oof policy decisions about hiring, compensation, and distribution with respect quslity teachers.
However, the literature on teacher quality and qualifications has typically been tje as inconsistent and inconclusive. Much of this perception tge been fueled by a set of analyses conducted by Eric Hanushek over the past two decades.
In his meta-analysis of studies examining the impact of several key educational resources on student achievement, Hanushek,concluded that there is no systematic relationship between educational inputs and student performance.
In addition, Hanushek included 41 estimates of the impact of teacher test scores on student outcomes. Krueger argues that this approach weights the various qaulity by the number of different estimates of the effect of a particular variable they include.
Further, he contends that studies that report negative or statistically insignificant findings are more likely to include more estimates than those that find statistically significant positive effects. On one hand, this set of studies could be argued to be too inclusive in the sense that even those studies that simply included an educational resource as a control variable might be inappropriately considered e.
On the other hand, the production function literature could be contested as too exclusive in the sense that other methodological approaches, particularly those that allow the researcher to focus on more refined measures teaccher what teachers know and can do, can also make valuable contributions to what we know about the value of educational resources.
In contrast to the work of Hanushek and others who have looked at specific subgroups of studies see, for example, Mayer, Mullens, Moore, and Ralph ; Wayne and Youngs ; Whitehurstthe literature review presented here represents an analysis of a wide variety of empirical studies examining the impact of teacher attributes on teacher performance.
The approach taken here is similar to that used by Wilson, Floden, and Ferrini-Mundy in their review of the research on teacher preparation conducted for the U. Department of Education.
Empirical studies that conform to a variety of accepted methodological approaches and use a range of measures of teacher effectiveness are used to ascertain what existing evidence says about the relationship between teacher attributes and their performance. In addition, this approach pays close attention to a number of contextual factors e.
Clearly, the context of teaching is important and may affect the impact of the what is the best quality of a teacher attributes considered in this analysis.
In fact, when existing studies are considered as a whole without breaking them down by contextual factors such as subject area or grade levelfindings tend to be inconsistent across studies; context variables may help to explain the apparent inconsistency of the existing research.
In other words, a particular teacher attribute e. This careful attention to the context of teaching, wherever possible, helps to tease out some effects that would otherwise go undetected in reviews that neglect to consider these factors. The goal of this study is to sort through the available tje to draw conclusions about what matters, what has been studied but has not been shown to matter, and what has not been adequately studied.
In the face of such seemingly inco nsistent and inconclusive evidence, policy makers are side-stepping what causes sickness and diarrhea research or relying only on those studies that support their positions to move forward with teacher policies, often without the benefit of research to guide their efforts.
However, research can, and should, play a role in these decisions. For instance, numerous measures of what a teacher knows and can do have been routinely assumed to be important at least as indicated through kf strategies, salary schedules, and teacher reform agendas. However, questions continue to persist about what exactly a quality teacher is. In other words, what teacher characteristics have been found to predict teacher effectiveness?
Ot is a fundamental question that must precede policy discussions concerning what kinds of teacher qualities and qualifications to promote in aspiring teachers, whom to recruit and hire, what factors to use in setting salary schedules, and how to distribute teachers across different qualigy of schools and classrooms to achieve equity and adequacy goals.
This analysis examines qualitt existing empirical literature on the teachwr between teacher attributes and their effectiveness with the goal of informing policy on investing in teacher quality. Bbest next chapter describes the methodology used to review the literature on the relationship between teacher characteristics and their performance, and the chapter that follows presents the findings from this literature review.
The final chapter concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for future research and policy. The NCES information is based on projected or preliminary data. Of course, to the degree that reduced class sizes, overall educational spending, and teacher salaries are related to teacher quality, these can be viewed as investments in teacher quality, albeit indirect. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain identify teachers as a major determinant of student performance, but do not what does mrna do in protein synthesis teacher quality in terms of specific qualifications and characteristics.
They show strong, systematic differences in expected achievement gains related to different teachers using a variance-components model. In contrast to many of the policy recommendations for stricter teacuer qualifications, the Abell Foundation has recently released a report calling for the elimination of statewide coursework and certification requirements for teachers in favor of more flexible professional requirements Abell Foundation Likewise, Hess argues for the deregulation of teacher preparation.
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Jul 02, · Pay isn’t the only factor determining the quality and desirability of a teaching job. Class sizes, pensions, and more general working conditions are all important when gauging what it’s like. National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ): Review evaluations of teacher education quality for 2, teacher preparation programs. National Education Association (NEA): The largest teacher organization in the US, providing educational and networking opportunities for its members. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement Teacher Qualifications Teacher qualifications are particularly necessary for regulating entry into the classroom when performance and outcome data are not yet available, as is the case with new teachers. Teacher qualifications are also commonly used as indicators of teacher quality because of the relative.
Each school celebrates differently and some not at all but these 25 best gifts for teachers will let them know how much you value the hard and necessary work they do. Comforting golden milk gets a cool update thanks to the 3D printed tiger heads that get dropped in hot water or milk to make a rich, bright yellow drink. These are available in six different colors and a have nearly perfect five-star rating on Amazon with over , reviews. Make grading more fun with this personalized teacher stamp.
After all the hand-washing teachers do they come into contact with a lot of kid snot a good hand cream is essential. This one from haircare brand Ouai is luxe and hydrating without being sticky. The sophisticated scent has notes of flowers, musk, sandalwood, and amber.
This bouquet will last a whole lot longer than fresh flowers. It includes a saucer for resting a hot mug, and the mesh is very finely perforated so no weird loose bits of tea come through. Candy is always a safe choice, especially this trio of delicious gummies in fun flavors like peach bellini alcohol-free , strawberry rose, and sour stars.
This luxe lip balm is more than your average drugstore chapstick. Bringing lunch to school can be chic and more eco-friendly than using plastic bags with a cool Bento box like the one from Japanese brand, Takenaka. Everything except the lid and fork are microwave and dishwasher-safe. This gadget turns any piece of paper into a sticker. You can never go wrong with a gift card, especially when they can use it to buy anything from new apps, to music or storage space on their laptop, or even treat themselves to headphones or a cool new device.
Give the teacher that always glows the gift of gold And with so many gorgeous colors, good luck choosing just one but with their great price you may want to snag a few anyway.
Not too long ago it would have been hard to fathom carrying around a mask, let alone a protective case for one. But here we are, and this protective pouch can hang off a bag or desk to keep their mask clean and accessible without digging around for it. This is a real print that will be delivered as opposed to a digital download but it does not come framed.
Reviewers noted the speedy delivery and great quality. This one also comes with basil seeds so they can start using it right away. Drinking eight eight ounce glasses a day feels like a treat in this gorgeous stainless steel bottle designed by George Sowden for HAY.
It comes in five rich colors. Architecture buffs, or those who simply appreciate the finer things, will get a lot of use out of this trio of ballpoint pens. The Wright design on each pen adds a bit of history to grading sessions. This gift set includes chocolate infused with rose petals, cardamom, sesame, and halva, plus a candle that smells like a spa and rose-scented bath salts. Organizing a desk can be a beautiful experience thanks to the floral organizer that adds a touch of spring to any room.
It has space for file folders, pencils, pens, and small notebooks or a phone. Gift Guide. April See All Trying Birth After. Raising Kids.