what is the density of the thermosphere

thermosphere

The density of the thermosphere is very very low that it approaches zero or almost like a vacuum. The lower layer of the atmosphere, the stratosphere, contains 99 % of the atmosphere's mass. Although the thermosphere is considered part of Earth's atmosphere, the air density is so low in this layer that most of the thermosphere is what we normally think of as outer space. In fact, the most common definition says that space begins at an altitude of km (62 miles), slightly above the mesopause at the bottom of the thermosphere.

The aurora Northern Lights and Southern Lights mostly occur in the thermosphere. The thermosphere is a layer of Earth's atmosphere. The thermosphere is directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere. It extends from about 90 km 56 miles to between and 1, km to miles above our planet. Temperatures climb sharply in the hte thermosphere below to km altitudethen level off and hold fairly steady with increasing altitude above that height.

Solar activity strongly influences temperature in the thermosphere. The boundary between the thermosphere and the exosphere above it is called the thermopause. At the bottom of the thermosphere is the mesopause, the boundary between the thermosphere and the mesosphere below.

Although the thermosphere is considered part of Earth's atmosphere, the air density is so low in this layer that most of the thermosphere is what we normally think of as outer space. In fact, the most common definition says that space begins at an altitude of km 62 milesslightly above the mesopause at the bottom of densityy thermosphere.

The tjermosphere shuttle and the International Space Station both orbit Earth within the thermosphere! Below the tne, gases made of different types of atoms and molecules are thoroughly mixed together by turbulence in the atmosphere.

In the thermosphere and above, gas particles collide so infrequently that the gases become somewhat separated based on the types of chemical elements they contain. Energetic ultraviolet and X-ray photons from the Sun also break apart molecules in the thermosphere. In the upper thermosphere, atomic oxygen Oatomic nitrogen N thermospnere, and helium He are the main components of air.

Much of the X-ray and UV radiation from the Sun is absorbed in the thermosphere. When the Sun is very active and emitting more high energy radiation, the thermosphere gets hotter and expands or "puffs up".

Because of this, the height of the top of the thermosphere the thermopause varies. The what is casein protein used for is found at an altitude between km and 1, km or higher.

Many satellites orbit within the thermosphere and changes in the density of the very, very thin air at orbital altitudes, brought on by heating and expansion of the thermosphere, generates a drag force on satellites. Engineers must take this varying drag into account when calculating orbits, and satellites occasionally need to be boosted higher to offset the effects of the drag force. High-energy solar photons also tear electrons away from gas particles in the thermosphere, creating electrically-charged ions of atoms and molecules.

Earth's ionosphere, composed of several regions of such ionized particles in the atmosphere, overlaps with and shares the same space with the electrically neutral thermosphere. Like the oceans, Earth's atmosphere has waves and tides within it. These waves and tides help move energy around within the atmosphere, including the thermosphere. Winds and the overall circulation in the thermosphere are largely driven by these tides and waves.

Moving ions, dragged along by collisions with the electrically neutral gases, produce powerful electrical currents in some parts of the thermosphere. Finally, the aurora the Southern and Northern Lights primarily occur in the thermosphere.

Charged particles electrons, what religion does rihanna believe in, and other ions from space collide with atoms and molecules in the thermosphere at high latitudes, exciting them into higher energy states. Those atoms and molecules shed this excess energy by emitting photons of light, which we see as colorful auroral displays. Skip to main content.

More about Layers denstiy the Atmosphere. More about Earth's Atmosphere.

Thermosphere

Apr 08,  · The thermosphere lies between the exosphere and the mesosphere. “Thermo” means heat, and the temperature in this layer can reach up to 4, degrees Fahrenheit. If you were to hang out in the thermosphere, though, you would be very cold because there aren’t enough gas molecules to transfer the heat to you. Thus, the upper thermosphere has a diurnal temperature, density, and wind response, whereas the lower thermosphere has a semidiurnal response as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. (A) A calculation of temperature (K) (contours) and vectors (arrows) of winds in the upper thermosphere near km altitude for solar medium conditions (F =). The density of the thermosphere varies on the average from ? 10 –8 g/cm 3 at a height of about 80 km to ? 10 –15 g/cm 3 at a height of about km. The relative content of the atmospheric components at the mesopause is similar to that at ground level, but the amount of oxygen in the atomic state increases with increasing height.

In the present article, the term is used in the narrower sense. The thermosphere is characterized by a positive temperature gradient, which is equal to zero at the mesopause, has a maximum value between and km, and again becomes equal to zero near the base of the exosphere, where the atmosphere becomes practically isothermal. Temperature variations are especially large at the base of the exosphere.

The density of the thermosphere varies on the average from 1. The relative content of the atmospheric components at the mesopause is similar to that at ground level, but the amount of oxygen in the atomic state increases with increasing height. At a level of about km, the separation of gases by diffusion begins.

Above the —km level atomic oxygen, which is lighter than molecular oxygen and nitrogen, becomes predominant; above km, there are significant relative concentrations of even lighter elements, namely, hydrogen and helium. All the characteristics of the thermosphere are subject to rather sizable variations, depending on geographic position, solar activity, season of year, and time of day. The temperature and dynamical conditions of the thermosphere are governed by the energy it absorbs.

This energy may originate from nonterrestrial sources or the underlying troposphere. The major sources of thermospheric energy are: hard solar electromagnetic radiation, which dissociates and ionizes the atmosphere; energetic charged particles protons and electrons that penetrate the high-latitude regions of the atmosphere during auroras; atmospheric molecules dissociated into atoms; gravity waves, which may originate both in the troposphere and in the upper atmosphere in the auroral region; and energy dissipation in the thermospheric circulation.

The dominant constituents of the thermosphere are nitrogen and oxygen molecules and oxygen atoms, none of which can emit infrared radiation in large amounts. Thus, as a result of insufficient emissivity, the thermosphere is strongly heated, especially at great heights. Under these conditions, heat can be removed only by conduction to the mesopause as a consequence of the positive temperature gradient. A large number of complex molecules, such as carbon dioxide, water, and ozone, are present at the mesopause; these molecules are good emitters of infrared radiation and thus ensure that heat accumulated above the mesopause is removed from the atmosphere.

The thermosphere exerts a drag on artificial satellites, and the behavior of the ionosphere depends substantially on the state of the thermosphere. Related to thermosphere: ionosphere. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Moscow, Translated from English. Fizika verkhnei atmosfery Zemli.

Edited by G. Leningrad, Krasovskii, V. Shtili i shtormy v verkhnei atmosfere. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition All rights reserved. Mentioned in? References in periodicals archive? Mlynczak and his colleagues have created the Thermosphere Climate Index TCI , which measures how much NO is dumped from the thermosphere into outer space.

Overview of the temperature response in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere to solar activity. Global Scaling of Planetary Atmospheres. Laparoscopic microwave thermosphere ablation of malignant liver tumors: an initial clinical evaluation. A comparison between MHz and MHz microwave ablation systems for the treatment of small diameter lung metastases. Wissing, "Interannual variation of NOx from the lower thermosphere to the upper stratosphere in the years ," Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.

ScopeX The company added that its Emprint Ablation System with Thermosphere Technology is designed to precisely heat and destroy diseased soft tissue including liver, lung and kidney , and non-resectable liver tumors. Covidien reports launch of Emprint system technology to enable physicians to deliver precise ablation directly to soft tissue.

The QB50 program will study in situ the temporal and spatial variations of a number of parameters in the lower thermosphere using a network of around 40 double CubeSats carrying identical sensors.

CubeSats keep space research motoring: miniature DC motors are on a mission to help tiny satellites reach their big potential. Summary: The Republic of Lebanon is set to reignite its space program, more than 40 years after the first Lebanese rocket ascended kilometers into the thermosphere.

In a landmark decision, the new government is seeking funding for a multimillion dollar program that could see the country send an astronaut into space within a decade, sources Lebanon to 'rejoin space race'. Lifetime estimation of the upper stage of GSAT in geostationary transfer orbit. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU middle and upper atmosphere radar and GPS global positioning system radio occultation.

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