What is Operating System? Types of OS, Features and Examples
Oct 29, · Windows XP is an operating system that Microsoft introduced in It served as an innovation of the Windows NT kernel and a successor to Windows Me (for consumers) and Windows (for enterprises). It was ultimately succeeded by Windows Vista in Jun 13, · Windows XP is an operating system (OS) developed and exclusively distributed by Microsoft Corporation and targeted to owners of personal computers, laptops and media centers. The "XP" stands for eXPerience. Windows XP was released to manufacturers in August and publicly released in October Estimated Reading Time: 1 min.
Tremble, mortals! Halloween is upon us. Not so we can gaze upon their ghastly interfaces, but to see if we can learn anything from their digital carcasses and signs of a life well-lived—or not. Who knows, perhaps they bring secrets from beyond the grave. Windows XP proved to be a hit since its inception. As due date how to watch f1 in the uk due date slipped for Longhorn, more people became invested in the familiar and near-universal XPand to disdain change of any kind.
When Longhorn finally emerged from its 5. It took another two years of development and the release of Windows 7 before Windows XP would finally begin to lose ground. Yet it was another four to five years depending syztem whom you ask before Windows 7 would replace XP as the most widely used operating system in the world. This is despite the fact that Microsoft ceased delivering security updates for XP in April —a year and a half ago.
Finally, the energy-efficient ARM processor architecture—ubiquitous on mobile devices—would earn its own version of Windows. Toward the end of its life, RT was no better than a glorified web browser with a smattering of ho-hum apps. Microsoft was never clear enough on what it wanted to do with Windows RT. The result was a poorly thought-out ecosystem that led to death by indifference.
That vision came to the fore with the original Macintosh operating system. The first Mac OS was a revelation that popularized how to cook a lamb roast in crock pot visual PC interface and mouse navigation wjat home operaing.
The downside, however, is that a lot of what made Mac OS so magical required technological trickery and clever solutions to help a constrained system perform beyond what was expected. Original Macintosh users were forced to constantly swap out disks constantly because of RAM restrictions.
Lesson learned: Even problematic software can be loved if the user experience is superior to the competition's. During the early days of computing, IBM was a dominating force with its line of personal computers. Lesson operatiny Even juggernauts can fall. Inwe officially bid goodbye to Mandrivaa once-popular Linux distribution. This version of Linux started out life as Mandrake until the company running the distro merged with Conectiva in to become Mandriva. Seven years later, development ceased.
Mandriva is just syztem of the many Iss distributions that have faded into oblivion— CrunchBangsupported by a single developer, is another one we recently covered. Linux may be a force in the server world, but it has never succeeded at winning over masses of desktop users. Its openness encourages many developers to create their own Linux distributions and then fight with the hundreds of other distros for a slice of a tiny user base.
You may wind up leaving the party sooner than you think. Now we close the PC crypt for yet another year…until the ghouls of dead PCs past rise again. Ian is an independent writer based in Israel who has never met a tech subject he didn't like.
He primarily covers Windows, PC and gaming hardware, video and music streaming services, social networks, and browsers. The ghosts of Linux past Inwe officially bid goodbye to Mandrivaa once-popular Linux distribution. A penguin skeleton?
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Dec 03, · The operating system is displayed as follows: For a bit version operating system: Windows XP Professional x64 Edition Version appears under System. For a bit version operating system: Windows XP Professional Version appears under System. Note is a placeholder for a year. Click Start, and then click Run. Sep 16, · If your entire business is going to grind to a halt because you can’t run an old application on Windows XP, you can still upgrade your computer to a more modern operating system. This is why Windows 7 — the Professional version, at least — contains Windows XP mode, which allows you to run applications in a special Windows XP system. Essentially, your computer will run an isolated copy of Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins. Microsoft Windows was announced by Bill Gates on November 10, Microsoft introduced Windows as a graphical user interface for MS-DOS, which had been introduced two years earlier. The product line evolved in the s from an operating environment into a fully complete, modern operating system over two lines of development, each with their own separate codebase.
It was the successor to both Windows for professional users and Windows Me for home users. It was released to manufacturing on August 24, , and broadly released for retail sale on October 25, Development of Windows XP began in the late s as " Neptune ", an operating system OS built on the Windows NT kernel which was intended specifically for mainstream consumer use.
An updated version of Windows was also originally planned for the business market; however, in January , both projects were scrapped in favor of a single OS codenamed "Whistler", which would serve as a single OS platform for both consumer and business markets. Upon its release, Windows XP received critical acclaim, with critics noting increased performance and stability especially in comparison to Windows Me , a more intuitive user interface, improved hardware support, and expanded multimedia capabilities.
However, some industry reviewers were concerned by the new licensing model and product activation system. Extended support for Windows XP ended on April 8, , after which the operating system ceased receiving further support or security updates with exceptional security updates, to address major malware threats, such as BlueKeep to most users.
Unofficial methods were made available to apply the updates to other editions of Windows XP. Microsoft officially discouraged this practice, citing incompatibility issues. As of March [update] , 0. In the late s, initial development of what would become Windows XP was focused on two individual products: " Odyssey ", which was reportedly intended to succeed the future Windows ; and " Neptune ", which was reportedly a consumer-oriented operating system using the Windows NT architecture, succeeding the MS-DOS -based Windows However, the projects proved to be too ambitious.
In January , shortly prior to the official release of Windows , technology writer Paul Thurrott reported that Microsoft had shelved both Neptune and Odyssey in favor of a new product codenamed "Whistler", named after Whistler, British Columbia , as many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort.
And since Neptune and Odyssey would be based on the same code-base anyway, it made sense to combine them into a single project". At PDC on July 13, , Microsoft announced that Whistler would be released during the second half of , and also unveiled the first preview build, , which featured an early implementation of Windows XP's visual styles system and interface changes to Windows Explorer and the Control Panel.
Microsoft released the first public beta build of Whistler, build , on October 31, Subsequent builds gradually introduced features that users of the release version of Windows XP would recognize, such as Internet Explorer 6. Microsoft had originally planned to use the slogan "Prepare to Fly", but it was replaced because of sensitivity issues in the wake of the September 11 attacks.
During a ceremonial media event at Microsoft Redmond Campus , copies of the RTM build were given to representatives of several major PC manufacturers in briefcases , who then flew off on decorated helicopters. While PC manufacturers would be able to release devices running XP beginning on September 24, , XP was expected to reach general, retail availability on October 25, On the same day, Microsoft also announced the final retail pricing of XP's two main editions, "Home" and "Professional".
While retaining some similarities to previous versions, Windows XP's interface was overhauled with a new visual appearance, with an increased use of alpha compositing effects, drop shadows , and " visual styles ", which completely changed the appearance of the operating system. The number of effects enabled are determined by the operating system based on the computer's processing power, and can be enabled or disabled on a case-by-case basis.
XP also added ClearType , a new subpixel rendering system designed to improve the appearance of fonts on liquid-crystal displays. The Start menu received its first major overhaul in XP, switching to a two-column layout with the ability to list, pin, and display frequently used applications, recently opened documents, and the traditional cascading "All Programs" menu.
The taskbar can now group windows opened by a single application into one taskbar button, with a popup menu listing the individual windows. The notification area also hides "inactive" icons by default. A "common tasks" list was added, and Windows Explorer 's sidebar was updated to use a new task-based design with lists of common actions; the tasks displayed are contextually relevant to the type of content in a folder e.
Fast user switching allows additional users to log into a Windows XP machine without existing users having to close their programs and logging out.
Although only one user at the time can use the console i. Windows XP uses prefetching to improve startup and application launch times. All Windows licenses must be tied to a unique ID generated using information from the computer hardware , transmitted either via the internet or a telephone hotline. If Windows is not activated within 30 days of installation, the OS will cease to function until it is activated. Windows also periodically verifies the hardware to check for changes.
If significant hardware changes are detected, the activation is voided, and Windows must be re-activated. Some of the programs and features that were part of the previous versions of Windows did not make it to Windows XP.
For instance, support for TCP half-open connections was removed in Service Pack 2,  and the address bar on the taskbar was removed in Service Pack 3. Both editions were made available at retail as pre-loaded software on new computers and as boxed copies. Boxed copies were sold as "Upgrade" or "Full" licenses; the "Upgrade" versions were slightly cheaper, but require an existing version of Windows to install.
The "Full" version can be installed on systems without an operating system or existing version of Windows. Windows 98 or Me can be upgraded to either edition, but Windows NT 4. Two specialized variants of XP were introduced in for certain types of hardware, exclusively through OEM channels as pre-loaded software. The OS is primarily aimed at first-time computer owners, containing heavy localization including wallpapers and screen savers incorporating images of local landmarks , and a "My Support" area which contains video tutorials on basic computing tasks.
It also removes certain "complex" features, and does not allow users to run more than three applications at a time. After a pilot program in India and Thailand , Starter was released in other emerging markets throughout As a result of unfair competition lawsuits in Europe and South Korea , which both alleged that Microsoft had improperly leveraged its status in the PC market to favor its own bundled software, Microsoft was ordered to release special editions of XP in these markets that excluded certain applications.
Consumer interest was minuscule, with roughly 1, units shipped to OEMs , and no reported sales to consumers. A service pack is a cumulative update package that is a superset of all updates, and even service packs, that have been released before it. Service Pack 3 is slightly different, in that it needs at least Service Pack 1 to have been installed, in order to update a live OS.
It contained over minor, post-RTM bug fixes, along with all security patches released since the original release of XP. SP1 also added USB 2. This feature was added to comply with the settlement of United States v. Microsoft Corp. Service Pack 2 SP2 was released on August 25, The security improvements codenamed "Springboard",  as these features were intended to underpin additional changes in Longhorn , included a major revision to the included firewall renamed Windows Firewall, and now enabled by default , and an update to Data Execution Prevention , which gained hardware support in the NX bit that can stop some forms of buffer overflow attacks.
Raw socket support is removed which supposedly limits the damage done by zombie machines and the Windows Messenger service which had been abused to cause pop-up advertisements to be displayed as system messages without a web browser or any additional software became disabled by default. Additionally, security-related improvements were made to e-mail and web browsing.
Service Pack 2 also added Security Center , an interface which provides a general overview of the system's security status, including the state of the firewall and automatic updates. Third-party firewall and antivirus software can also be monitored from Security Center. The unique boot screens that identified the edition of Windows XP currently running, including a green progress bar for Home Edition and a blue progress bar for other editions, were removed and replaced with a generic "Windows XP" boot screen with a blue progress bar with this service pack.
This was done so that the browser would not violate a patent owned by Eolas. It began being automatically pushed out to Automatic Updates users on July 10, In incorporating all previously released updates not included in SP2, Service Pack 3 included many other key features. Windows Imaging Component allowed camera vendors to integrate their own proprietary image codecs with the operating system's features, such as thumbnails and slideshows.
NET Framework version 1. Allen, was a former Microsoft employee in Software Quality Assurance and would comb through the Microsoft Knowledge Base articles daily and download new hotfixes Microsoft would put online within the articles. Microsoft publicly stated at the time that the SP3 pack was unofficial and users should not install it.
The maximum amount of RAM that Windows XP can support varies depending on the product edition and the processor architecture, as shown in the following table. However, XP supports a greater number of logical processors : bit editions support up to 32 logical processors,  whereas bit editions support up to 64 logical processors. Support for the original release of Windows XP without a service pack ended on September 30, Analysts felt that the move was primarily intended to compete against Linux -based netbooks, although Microsoft's Kevin Hutz stated that the decision was due to apparent market demand for low-end computers with Windows.
However, Microsoft advised against Windows XP users installing these fixes, citing incompatibility issues. On April 14, , Windows XP exited mainstream support and entered the extended support phase; Microsoft continued to provide security updates every month for Windows XP, however, free technical support, warranty claims, and design changes were no longer being offered.
Extended support ended on April 8, , over 12 years since the release of XP; normally Microsoft products have a support life cycle of only 10 years. Plans were being made by several ATM vendors and their customers to migrate to Windows 7-based systems over the course of , while vendors have also considered the possibility of using Linux-based platforms in the future to give them more flexibility for support lifecycles, and the ATM Industry Association ATMIA has since endorsed Windows 10 as a further replacement.
These holdouts were influenced by several factors; prices of genuine copies of later versions of Windows in the country are high, while Ni Guangnan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences warned that Windows 8 could allegedly expose users to surveillance by the United States government ,  and the Chinese government would ban the purchase of Windows 8 products for government use in May in protest of Microsoft's inability to provide "guaranteed" support.
As such, government officials formally requested that Microsoft extend the support period for XP for these reasons. While Microsoft did not comply with their requests, a number of major Chinese software developers, such as Lenovo, Kingsoft and Tencent , will provide free support and resources for Chinese users migrating from XP.
On March 8, , Microsoft deployed an update for XP that, on the 8th of each month, displays a pop-up notification to remind users about the end of support; however, these notifications may be disabled by the user. Despite the approaching end of support, there were still notable holdouts that had not migrated past XP; many users elected to remain on XP because of the poor reception of Windows Vista , sales of newer PCs with newer versions of Windows declined because of the Great Recession and the effects of Vista, and deployments of new versions of Windows in enterprise environments require a large amount of planning, which includes testing applications for compatibility especially those that are dependent on Internet Explorer 6, which is not compatible with newer versions of Windows.
Similarly, specialized devices that run XP, particularly medical devices , must have any revisions to their software—even security updates for the underlying operating system—approved by relevant regulators before they can be released.
For this reason, manufacturers often did not allow any updates to devices' operating systems, leaving them open to security exploits and malware. Despite the end of support for Windows XP, Microsoft has released three emergency security updates for the operating system to patch major security vulnerabilities:. Researchers reported in August that Windows 10 users may be at risk for "critical" system compromise because of design flaws of hardware device drivers from multiple providers.
On release, Windows XP received critical acclaim. CNET described the operating system as being "worth the hype", considering the new interface to be "spiffier" and more intuitive than previous versions, but feeling that it may "annoy" experienced users with its "hand-holding".
XP's expanded multimedia support and CD burning functionality were also noted, along with its streamlined networking tools. The performance improvements of XP in comparison to and Me were also praised, along with its increased number of built-in device drivers in comparison to The software compatibility tools were also praised, although it was noted that some programs, particularly older MS-DOS software, may not work correctly on XP because of its differing architecture.
They panned Windows XP's new licensing model and product activation system, considering it to be a "slightly annoying roadblock", but acknowledged Microsoft's intent for the changes.
Despite extended support for Windows XP ending in , many users — including some enterprises — were reluctant to move away from an operating system they viewed as a stable known quantity despite the many security and functionality improvements in subsequent releases of Windows. Windows XP's longevity was viewed as testament to its stability and Microsoft's successful attempts to keep it up to date, but also as an indictment of its direct successor's perceived failings.
According to web analytics data generated by Net Applications , Windows XP was the most widely used operating system until August , when Windows 7 overtook it later overtaken by Windows 10 ,  while StatCounter indicates it happening almost a year earlier. Anonymous users managed to compile the code, as well as a Twitter user who posted videos of the process on YouTube proving that the code was genuine. The leak was incomplete as it was missing the Winlogon source code and some other components.
Microsoft issued a statement stating that it was investigating the leaks. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Xp operating system. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 April